Testing of exposure to waves emitted by mobile telephones was modified in 2016 to take changes in models and uses into account. Since then, manufacturers have been required to assess exposure under realistic conditions of use, i.e. when the telephone is placed very close to the body, at a maximum distance of 5 mm. However, many telephones complying with the earlier regulations, and still in use, generate high levels of exposure when placed close to the body. ANSES was therefore asked to assess the possible health effects associated with these exposure conditions. Following its expert appraisal, ANSES recommends that measures be taken to ensure that users are no longer subject to high levels of exposure when telephones are carried close to the body.